Tag Archives: esl

Project Gutenberg


Project Gutenberg is an online repository of books that are out of copyright, and thus freely available for anyone to use. With over 30,000 books currently available, this site provides a great source for gratis reading material. However, more important than this, it provides a massive amount of text that can be mashed and remixed in any way you or your students can dream up. Free from the constraints of copyright, and available in unfettered digital form, why not try some of the following ideas:

  • Use Wordle to create fantastic word clouds, which can be used to pick out themes or learn vocab.
  • Give students part of a text and ask them to write an extension or introduction to it.
  • Take a famous novel and come up with some crazy alternative endings.
  • Use Flickr Storm (free photos) and Storybird (digital storytelling) to create a picturebook version of a text.
  • Work as a class to produce an audio version of a book, publish it with Creative Commons and give it away on the web.
  • Take a novel and remix it into a song, poem, play or game.

I am sure there are at least a hundred other uses for Project Gutenberg’s texts. Let me know if you can think of any, and I will include them in this list.


I love comics, and am often amazed not only by how funny they can be, but also how much can be learned from them. Growing up I was a regular reader of Calvin & Hobbes, The Far Side and Mad Magazine. As I grew older I began to appreciate the intelligence and sophistication of Dilbert and XKCD. From this reading I developed my own sense of humour. More than this, however, I learned to question and reflect on the world around me, to understand that different situations could be understood in different ways and that I was not alone in my feelings and views on the world and its inhabitants.

Whilst many children love comics, too many teachers and parents dismiss them as childish distractions from serious reading and learning. If you are of this opinion, I ask you to read this short strip and see if it changes your perspective on this issue. Whilst reading comics can be beneficial in the ways described above, creating comics provides an even richer opportunity for learning. Consider some of the following ways in which comic creation can be used in the classroom:

  • Discovering the joy and power of remixing and mashing up the work of others.
  • Drafting stories before writing.
  • Encouraging creativity and self expression.
  • Character development to extend understanding of texts.
  • Learning about graphic design and layout.
  • Learning about persuasion.
  • Honing online research skills.
  • Learning computing skills.
  • Developing an understanding of issues surrounding intellectual property and copyright.
  • Digital storytelling.
  • Summarising complex ideas.
  • Putting events into chronological order.
  • Learning about visual literacy, social conventions and suggestion in the media.

Interestingly, these ideas apply to almost all subjects. If you are teacher, stop for a minute and consider the multitude of ways in which this could be applied to the subjects you teach. Certainly within both of my subjects (ICT and ESL) I can see plenty of scope for applying these approaches. In fact, in terms of promoting multiliteracies, I can think of few more powerful tools.

Computer technology provides us with some great tools for quickly and easily creating comics. These technologies afford one great advantage to users: they lower the barrier to creating great work because they do not require traditional artistic abilities, such as drawing. The following are four pieces of software that can be used to empower students:

  • Comic Life is the premier comic creation software in terms of ease-of-use and pure joy. It focuses on arranging existing images and applying effects to them. It is desktop software, and runs on Windows and Mac OS. Unfortunately, payment is required, although it is very reasonable, especially when purchasing in bulk. The 30-day trial is completely free and unrestricted, so this is a great place to start.
  • Comiqs is an online alternative to Comic Life, with comparable functionality: it seems extremely promising, but is in beta and currently seems to have some bugs. Hopefully these will be ironed out in the near future. The service is free, and there is no need to install any software onto your computer.
  • Pixton is an extremely flexible online comic creator. Unlike Comic Life and Comiqs, which are primarily concerned with working on existing images, Pixton allows users to create and edit their own comic characters. This is a great tool that is worth some serious exploration, and whilst it does seem a little tricky to use, it does provide a huge range of flexibility. Pixton is free for individual users, but there is also a paid educational version with enhanced tools for teachers.
  • BitStrips works along the same lines as Pixton, but is somewhat easier to use. That said, you do not get quite as much flexibility in terms of creating and manipulating your creations, although the results can be just as good. I would recommend this for use with younger students. As with Pixton, it is free for individual users, but there is also a paid educational version with enhanced tools for teachers.

Having sung the virtues of comic creation, I will end with a cautionary note: as with any tool, it is essential not to overuse this approach. Whilst kids will love the novelty and freedom that these activities can bring, if they do it every year in every subject they will very soon lose interest.

If you adopt any of these ideas in your classroom, please feel free to send over some student work, which I will gladly post on this page.

Example Report Text Type

Example Report Text Type

This model text can be used to introduce ICT students to the report text type. It may be particularly useful to those students for whom English is a second language. Annotations have been kept brief, but colour has been used to link into the text for clarity. It is anticipated that the teacher would guide the students, rather than relying just on the text.

That Explains It All!

I have a friend in Hong Kong. We used to work together at the YMCA, where we both played roller hockey. Like me he grew up in Hong Kong, but where I went to international school, he attended a local school. There he studied mainly in Cantonese, but also learned English as a Second Language. I knew he had failed his English in Form 5, prior to leaving school.

When I met him, his English was very good, and by the time we stopped seeing each other regularly (around 3 years later), it was probably the best English I have ever heard from a native Cantonese speaker (as an aside, Mandarin speakers mostly seem to find English much easier than Cantonese speakers). He once even taught me some English slang that I was unfamiliar with, which really surprised me.

What I, and our mutual friends, could never understand was how, during this time, he managed to fail his Form 5 English resit examination. Who could possibly assert, with any authority, that this man could not speak English?

Learning about Cummins (1996) recently, it all clicked. My friend’s BICS English was superb, and we took this to mean proficiency. However, the examiners most likely looked at his CALP English, and determined it not to be sufficiently advanced. In short, he could not communicate what he knew in a way that was acceptable to the examiners.

This insight unravelled one of my life’s biggest mysteries (my life is obviously not that exciting). However, I still find it extremely unfair that this hero of ESL did not get to bask in the glory I still believe he deserved. If only my Cantonese was anywhere near as good as his English!



Wordle allows the easy creation of beautiful word clouds from any text. Word clouds are a means of displaying text is a visual manner, where the frequency of use of a word determines its visual prominence. A great way to use word clouds is to create one as a primer to a text that is to be studied: this can be used to learn vocab ahead of time, or to try and guess the meaning and content of a text based on a single dimension. The uses for word clouds are practically as limitless as your own imagination.

3D Warehouse


Warehouse of 3D objects for Google Sketchup. Objects include buildings, vehicles, furniture and much more, allowing students to create their own works of 3D art and design. This can be used in traditional design and technology subjects, or, with a little imagination, in subjects such as English. For example, ask students to create a scene, in which they then set a story of their own writing.